دوره 8، شماره 16 - ( پاییز و زمستان 1396 )                   جلد 8 شماره 16 صفحات 113-122 | برگشت به فهرست نسخه ها

XML English Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Impacts of enclosure and aspect on runoff and sediment yields (Case study: Khamsan paired watersheds) . jwmr. 2018; 8 (16) :113-122
URL: http://jwmr.sanru.ac.ir/article-1-908-fa.html
هادی قورقی جبار، اوسطی خالد. اثر قرق و جهت دامنه بر مقادیر رواناب و رسوب(مطالعه موردی: حوزه‌های زوجی خامسان). پ‍‍ژوهشنامه مديريت حوزه آبخيز. 1396; 8 (16) :113-122

URL: http://jwmr.sanru.ac.ir/article-1-908-fa.html

چکیده:   (1005 مشاهده)
فرسایش خاک به عنوان یکی از بزرگترین چالش­های زیست محیطی دنیا، سلامت اکوسیستم­ها و امنیت غذایی را تهدید می­نماید. پژوهش حاضر در حوزه­های زوجی خامسان انجام شده و به مقایسه مقادیر رواناب و رسوب ناشی از 51 واقعه بارش طبیعی در 18 کرت استاندارد فرسایش خاک مستقر در شرایط متفاوت از نظر قرق و جهت دامنه پرداخته است. با توجه به اعمال دو حالت قرق و عدم قرق در چهار وضعیت جهت دامنه(شمالی، شرقی، غربی و شمال غربی) و احتمال وجود اثرهای متقابل، از آزمون آماری فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه کاملا تصادفی استفاده گردید. نتایج حاصله نشان داد که متوسط ضریب رواناب رگبارهای مورد بررسی در حوزه نمونه 21/4 درصد و در حوزه شاهد 71/4 درصد بود و متوسط رسوب تولیدی کرت­ها در حوزه شاهد حدود 15 درصد بیشتر از حوزه نمونه بود. براساس نتایج آزمون فاکتوریل، قرق و جهت دامنه اثر معنی­داری بر تولید رواناب داشتند و اثرات متقابل قرق و جهت دامنه بر مقادیر میانگین حجم رواناب، ضریب رواناب و مقدار رسوب در سطح یک درصد معنی­دار شد. بیشترین رواناب تولیدی مربوط به کرت­های شاهد نصب شده در دامنه شمالی بود. نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که اعمال قرق با احیای پوشش گیاهی و افزایش نفوذپذیری، باعث کاهش هدررفت آب و فرسایش خاک می­شود.
متن کامل [PDF 811 kb]   (382 دریافت)    
نوع مطالعه: پژوهشي | موضوع مقاله: تخصصي
دریافت: ۱۳۹۶/۱۱/۱۰ | پذیرش: ۱۳۹۶/۱۱/۱۰ | انتشار: ۱۳۹۶/۱۱/۱۰

فهرست منابع
1. Aghajantabar Ali, H., M. Mohseni Saravi and M.R. Chaichi and Gh. Heidari. 2015. Grazing Pressure Effect on Soil Physical and Chemical Characteristics and Vegetation Cover in Vaz Watershed, Mazandaran Province. Journal of Watershed Management Research, 6(11): 111-123 (in Persian).
2. Ahmadi Iikhchi, A., M.A. Hajabbassi and A. Jalalian. 2003. Effects of converting range to dry-farming land on runoff and soil loss and quality in Dorahan, Chaharmahal & Bakhtiari province. Journal of Water and Soil Science (Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural resources), 6 (4): 103-115 (in Persian).
3. Andreu, V., J.L. Rubio, E. Gimeno-Garcıa and J.V. Llinares. 1998. Testing three Mediterranean shrub species in runoff reduction and sediment transport. Soil & Tillage Research, 45: 441-454. [DOI:10.1016/S0933-3630(97)00040-8]
4. Bartley, R., A. Hawdon, D.A. Post and C.H. Roth. 2007. A sediment budget in a grazed semi-arid catchment in the Burdekin basin, Australia. Geomorphology, 87: 302-321. [DOI:10.1016/j.geomorph.2006.10.001]
5. Bartley, R., J.P. Corfield, B.N. Abbott, A.A. Hawdon, S.N. Wilkinson and B. Nelson. 2010. Impacts of improved grazing land management on sediment yields, Part 1: Hillslope processes. Journal of Hydrology, 389: 237-248. [DOI:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.05.002]
6. De Baets, S., J. Poesen, G. Gyssels and A. Knapen. 2006. Effects of grass roots on the erodibility of topsoils during concentrated flow. Geomorphology, 76: 54-67. [DOI:10.1016/j.geomorph.2005.10.002]
7. Descheemaecker, K., J. Nyssen, J. Rossi, J. Poesen, M. Haile, D. Raes, B. Muys, J. Moeyersons and S. Deckers. 2006. Sediment deposition and pedogenesis in exclosures in the Tigray highlands, Ethiopia. Geoderma, 132: 291-314. [DOI:10.1016/j.geoderma.2005.04.027]
8. Fabricius, K.E. 2005. Effects of terrestrial runoff on the ecology of corals and coral reefs: review and synthesis. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 50: 125-146. [DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2004.11.028]
9. Fabricius, K.E., G. De'ath, L. McCook, E. Turak and D.M. Williams. 2005. Changes in algal, coral and fish assesmblages along water quality gradients on the inshore Great Barrier Reef. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 51: 384-398. [DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2004.10.041]
10. Garcia-Estringana, P., N. Alonso-Blázquez, M.J. Marques, R. Bienes, F. González-Andrés and J. Alegre. 2013. Use of Mediterranean legume shrubs to control soil erosion and runoff in central Spain. A large-plot assessment under natural rainfall conducted during the stages of shrub establishment and subsequent colonisation, Catena, 102: 3-12. [DOI:10.1016/j.catena.2011.09.003]
11. Gyssels, G., J. Poesen, E. Bochet and Y. Li. 2005. The impact of plant roots on the resistance of soils to erosion by water: a critical review. Progress in Physical Geography, 29 (2): 189–217. [DOI:10.1191/0309133305pp443ra]
12. Hematzadeh, Y., H. Barani and A. Kabir. 2009. The role of vegetation management on surface runoff (case study: Kechik catchment in north-east of Golestan Province. Journal of Water and Soil Conservation, 16(2): 19-33 (in Persian).
13. Holt, J.A., K.L. Bristow and J.G. McIvor. 1996. The effects of grazing pressure on soil animals and hydraulic properties of two soils in semi-arid tropical Queensland. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 34: 69–79. [DOI:10.1071/SR9960069]
14. Huang, M., J. Gallichand and P. Zhang. 2003. Runoff and sediment responses to conservation practices: Loess plateau of China. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA), 39(5): 1197-1207. [DOI:10.1111/j.1752-1688.2003.tb03702.x]
15. Kargar M., M.R. Javadi, S.A.A. Hashemi and M. Mohammad Ebrahimi. 2016. Efficiency of USLE and some it's Variations for Storm-Wise Sediment Yield in Semi-arid Ranges (Case Study: Margsar Anistitiue of Semnan). Journal of Watershed Management Research, 7(13): 263-271 (in Persian).
16. Kavian, A. and M.A. Mohammadi. 2012. Effect of Rainfall Type on Runoff and Sediment Yeild in Plot Scale. Journal of Range and Watershed Management, Iranian Journal of Natural Resources, 65(1): 117-130 (in Persian).
17. McCulloch, M., S. Fallon, T. Wyndham, E. Hendy, J. Lough and D. Barnes. 2003. Coral record of increased sediment flux to the inner Great Barrier Reef since European Settlement. Nature, 421: 727-730. [DOI:10.1038/nature01361]
18. McIver, J.D and M.L. McInnis. 2007. Cattle grazing effects on macroinvertebrate in an Oregon Mountain Stream. Rangeland Ecology and Management, 60(3): 293-303. [DOI:10.2111/1551-5028(2007)60[293:CGEOMI]2.0.CO;2]
19. McKeon, G.M., W.B. Hall, B.K. Henry, G.S. Stone and I.W. Watson, Eds. 2004. Pasture Degradation and Recovery in Australia's Rangelands: Learning from history. Queensland Department of Natural Resources, Mines and Energy, Brisbane, Australia.
20. Mingguo, Zh. C. Qiangguo and Ch. Hao. 2007. Effect of vegetation on runoff-sediment yield relationship at different spatial scales in hilly areas of the Loess Plateau, North China. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 27(9): 3572-3581. [DOI:10.1016/S1872-2032(07)60075-4]
21. Mureithi, S.M., A. Verdoodti, Ch. Gachene, J.T. Njoka, V.O. Wasonga, S. De Neve, E. Meyerhoff and E. Van Ranst. 2014. Impact of enclosure management on soil properties and microbial biomass in a restored semi-arid rangeland, Kenya. Journal of Arid Land, 6(5): 561-570. [DOI:10.1007/s40333-014-0065-x]
22. Official website of Natural Resources and Watershed Management Office, Kurdistan Province, Accessed 02, August 2016, available online at http://www.kordestan.frw.org.ir/00/Fa/News/News.aspx?nwsId=38979 (in Persian).
23. Osati, Kh. 2016. Evaluation of Physiographic similarity of paired watersheds of Khamsan using Geographic Information System (GIS). 6th National Conference on Water Resources Management, 20-22 April 2016, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran (in Persian).
24. Sadeghi, H.R., M. Bashari Seghaleh and A.S. Rangavar. 2013. Plot sizes dependency of runoff and sediment yield estimates from a small watershed. Catena, 102: 55-61. [DOI:10.1016/j.catena.2011.01.003]
25. Sadegi, H.R., H.R. Pourghasemi, M. Mohammadi and H.A. Agharazi. 2008. Applicability of rainfall and runoff variables in estimation of storm-wise sediment yield from experimental plots with different land uses. Journal of Water and Soil (Agricultural Science and Technology), 22(1): 113-122(in Persian).
26. SAS Institute Inc. 2003. SAS 9.1.3, Cary, NC, USA.
27. Soltani, A. 2007. Application of SAS (statistical analysis software) for agricultural fields. Jahad-e Daneshgahi, Mashhad, 182 P.
28. Vidon, P., M.A. Campbell and M. Gray. 2008. Unrestricted cattle access to streams and water quality in till landscape of the Midwest. Agricultural Water Management, 95(3): 322-330. [DOI:10.1016/j.agwat.2007.10.017]
29. Xu, J., P.L. Liu, N.N. Zhang and L.F. Chen. 2013. Runoff and sediment responses to rainfall intensity in different vegetation restoration stages on the Loess Plateau of China. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment, 11(3&4): 1735-1738.
30. Yuanshou, L., W. Genxu, Q. Dahe, Zh. Lin and D. Yongjian. 2008. Study on the runoff and sediment-producing effects of precipitation in headwater areas of the Yangtze River and Yellow River, China. Environmental Geology, 56: 1-9. [DOI:10.1007/s00254-007-1134-7]
31. Zhua, T.X and A.X. Zhu. 2014. Assessment of soil erosion and conservation on agricultural sloping lands using plot data in the semi-arid hilly loess region of China. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, 2: 69-83.

ارسال نظر درباره این مقاله : نام کاربری یا پست الکترونیک شما:

کلیه حقوق این وب سایت متعلق به (پژوهشنامه مدیریت حوزه آبخیز (علمی-پژوهشی می باشد.

طراحی و برنامه نویسی : یکتاوب افزار شرق

© 2018 All Rights Reserved | Journal of Watershed Management Research

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb