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Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran
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Introduction and Objective: Depending on rainfall systems, as well as local conditions influenced by unprincipled human activities, floods cause a lot of damage to natural resources, settlements, and projects every year. Often hydrometric stations are destroyed during floods or small watersheds lack hydrometric stations, which means that the estimation of runoff and maximum flood discharges requires a suitable method to calculate runoff and flood values in these basins. Prevention of these damages is doubly important when the study area overlooks places with a high density of settlements and urban facilities that can threaten the lives of many residents. An estimate of the amount of runoff in each of the sub-basins of the watershed overlooking Malayer was undertaken in this study.
Material and Methods: The watershed overlooking the city of Malayer with an area of 14,700 hectares is stretched from the north to the northeast of the city. The processing of digital elevation models identified five sub-basins overlooking the city and field visits. The Curve number method was used to estimate runoff height and flood volume in each sub-basin. The most intense rainfall event was 88 mm per day with a return period of 30 years as design rainfall and the amount of previous rainfall in the 5 days before this event with a cumulative value of 45.2 mm was considered. In order to calculate the physical parameters of the watershed in this study, topography, geology, vegetation, soil, and land use maps were digitized using a geographic information system. By using Sentinel-2 images, which has 13 spectral bands and a spatial resolution of 10 meters, simultaneous maps of land use and rainfall were provided. Utilizing the SCS method, the layers of land use, vegetation, and soil hydrological groups were combined to produce a curve number map. We corrected the value of the curve number for the wet condition based on the rainfall 5 days before and the location of the basin in the previous wet conditions. A weighted curve number approach for each sub-basin was compared with another approach based on the arithmetic mean of the curve number for each sub-basin, as well as a weighted runoff height approach for each curve number. Kirpich's method was used to calculate the concentration time of each sub-basin. In the next step, using the maximum daily rainfall data from the Malayer synoptic station in the statistical period from 1991 to 2021, the rainfall height values were converted to runoff height using the SCS relationship, and then the peak flood discharge was calculated for each sub-basin.
Results: The lack of permanent vegetation and the presence of annual grasses are among the reasons for the high potential of the sub-basins in the production of runoff. As a result, the average curve number of arithmetic and weighted average methods is 79.09 and 81.46, respectively, which shows the high capacity of the basin in producing runoff. Converting curve number values to peak flood height and flow using two commonly used methods of curve number calculation and comparing it with the results of the weighted runoff height calculation approach for each curve number in the working units of the study area did not show any significant difference. Finally, the maps of the height of the runoff and the peak discharge of each sub-basin were drawn. The northern sub-basin of the basin with an average runoff height of 44.32 millimetres and a peak discharge of 168 cubic meters per second has the highest participation in flood discharge towards the city of Malayer, and sub-basin No. 4 in the southeastern part of the basin has the least participation in flood generation. In addition, in the relationship between the area and the height of the runoff, the results showed that in all three methods of calculating the curve number and the height of the runoff, the basins with a larger area do not necessarily contribute the most to the occurrence of floods. Other factors also play a role in these results, such as the extent of rocky outcrops and reduction time of concentration due to the high slope as one of the reasons for this problem. The formation of the longest watercourse in the basin with a length of 16314 meters under sub-basin number three, which has the highest peak flood flow after sub-basin number two, is one of the discussed technical points that can handle the rapid discharge of the peak flow of about 100 cubic meters per second. However, the study of its longitudinal slope of about two percent indicates the high risk of flooding caused by the lack of evacuation in rains with a high return period, which in turn is a serious risk for the threats caused by floods in the southeastern part of the city. The intersection of the end part of the main waterway with the exit of other sub-basins and the collection of runoff under the upstream basins are other problems that increase the risk of flooding in the downstream areas.
Conclusion: It is suitable to use the curve number method to estimate the amount of runoff produced in the basins overlooking the settlements, which do not usually have hydrometric stations. Because of its low-density pastures and rain-fed agriculture, the watershed overlooking Malayer has a high potential for runoff production.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: بلايای طبيعی (سيل، خشکسالی و حرکت های توده ای)
Received: 2023/02/19 | Revised: 2023/12/9 | Accepted: 2023/12/10 | Published: 2024/07/31

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