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Tarbiat Modares University
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Introduction and Objective: Soil erosion is one of the most important types of land destruction, which poses serious problems for humanity. Evaluating the state and spatial extent of land erosion has become an important requirement in developing countries. Biological management is recommended as an appropriate and effective means of controlling soil erosion in the early stages of all types of soil erosion as a required approach. Nevertheless, less attention has been given to biological measures in the control of soil erosion. Therefore, current research has been conducted to apply the biological management in the Kilanbar Watershed in Kermanshah Province, Iran.
Material and Methods: After preparing and combining layers of elevation, direction and steepness of slope in the geographic information system (GIS) softwave, and according to expert opinion, 14 work units were extracted in Kilanbar watershed. The state of soil erosion was completed based on the scoring of the BLM sheet in each work unit based on the visual and expert opinions, and a map of the erosion pattern was prepared in the work units. Then ambrotropic and hyterograph were drawn using 30-year precipitation and temperature data of Ravansar synoptic station, in order to determine the period of drought and wet condition and to determine suitable plants with the characteristics of the region. The climatic-agricultural map was also prepared and integrated in GIS using the meteorological station data of temperature, precipitation and evaporation and transpiration, and finally, plant species were selected according to ecological expectations for watershed biological measures.
Results: According to the results of the BLM sheet, one work unit is in partial erosion condition, 8 work units are in low condition and 5 other work units are in medium erosion condition. According to the map of the erosion pattern, the majority of the studied area, about 70% of the watershed, is in a low and medium erosion state, which naturally confirmed the high ability to use the appropriate method of biological measures to control soil erosion. According to ambrothermic and hyterograph, June to September were dry months, and precipitation changes were greater than temperature in October to May. According to the climatic-agricultural map, the region is divided into 5 class, which respectively, class 4 and 1 with 4819.3 and 364.83 ha have the largest and smallest area. Finally, the zoning of suitable pasture species in the watershed showed that in the region, pasture species of Asteragalus ascendes, Avena fatua, Picnomon sp., Achillea millefolium, Bromus tomentellus, and Hordum blubosum formed the dominant part of the region. Based on this, the selection of plant species appropriate to the conditions of the study watershed, conservation and promotion measures in agriculture, preservation of the ecological privacy of the river and prevention of land use change for the study area were done.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: حفاظت آب و خاک
Received: 2022/08/11 | Revised: 2024/02/24 | Accepted: 2023/02/25

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